2014-09-30
    《WATCH旁观者》杂志对话 / Christopher James Coonan Interview


    对话

     

    Interview


     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    1、作为职业的建筑师,在建筑实践中,你最在乎的理念有哪些?

     

    最重要的是特定场所。深刻的理解了自然、生活及文化环境,这才算是个成功的项目。所以,调研是不断获取成功的关键。

    我称之为R&D因素,你花在研究和计划的时间越多,甲方的项目就会做的越好,也能在金钱上得到更有利的双赢。给开发商的时间不足,或是只针对好概念的费用却不足以满足整个项目。在中国,建筑也讲究“中国速度”这一说法。但有时,过快的追求速度就如你在超速驾驶般危险,随时都有事故发生。新一届的中国领导人强调要可持续发展方向,这无疑带给开发商更多的反思,让建筑师去创作永恒作品的契机。可持续的建筑生命对中国来说很重要,首先,我们需要的是精良的设计和对细节的把控。

     

    我的作品往往是追求与自然合一的境界。我的建筑力求挖掘自然之美,恢复经典之后,还经得住时间的考验。中国有着悠久的历史,很可惜的是,很多古迹却已经被催毁。所以,现在的建筑也许会主导今后的社会发展。我们身为建筑师应该有责任去设计未来,并缅怀过去。

     

    设计初稿中的概念应该和实地勘测的环境相联系,而大多数建筑师却是从杂志上获取灵感。抄袭来建筑概念即使适当地联系了点环境,这样可快速解决问题,但这样的设计并不好。从过去的建筑得到灵感又另当别论,我也看到了重庆的建筑以及中国其他地方的建筑。所以,在我的工作中,我经常从观测建筑开始,去实地勘测,熟悉当地的风土人情,了解当地气候以及当地人对环境的期望。 南方人喜欢大阳台,在户外餐饮,混泥土建筑,绿树成荫……而北方人更喜欢日照,和敞亮的建筑。无论你是身在山城、江城或是热带海岛上,每座城都有独特的当地特色。从哈尔滨到海南,都有我的建筑项目,所以,我能有幸地领略当地的各种风土人情。

     

     

    2、你如何看待中国当下的建筑现状?如大量的新建建项目、拆除重来、城市的规划、城市与农村的问题?

     

    中国的建筑发展的太快。臻于完美的建筑需要好几十年或者上百年来实现,而不是几个月或是几年就能完成。二战后,中国发展不如世界的其他大国,所以这半个多世纪以来,中国一直都在加快步伐去追赶。但生态环境却付出了惨重的代价:江水受到污染,空气变得浑浊,每片树叶、每辆汽车和人行道上都落满了灰尘,酸雨腐蚀着整座城市建筑……如果大自然有感情的话,她一定会为中国带来的伤痛而哭泣。

     

    城市规划者应该合理规划房屋的拆建,并实行对城市粉尘的控制措施。我对一个拿软水管的工人冲刷一个拆迁的10层楼址嗤之以鼻,你们真应该去看下西方如何缓解的建筑粉尘。我家紧挨一座巨大的桥梁,经常都有工人彻夜施工扰得我们无法睡眠。随时都有噪音、亮灯、爆炸声、焊接味以及很多腐蚀性物质到处弥漫。这种被忽略掉的人文关怀,是需要得到重视的。人行道的消失,迫使人们在马路上和车辆争抢空间,这在西方是完全无法接受的,而中国却习以为常。

     

    大规模的建筑项目在增加并不意味这是件好事,其实把精力只集中于一个、两个或是三个的建筑,大多数新住宅发展也许需要20或30处高塔,上百处的公寓建筑,所以,到处被弄得坑坑洼洼。重庆有着传统的方形规划的单体楼布置,而大部分新建的高层建筑设计独到、工艺精美。江北区,大范围的设计为千篇一律的封闭式社区,让整个江北看起来就像一片荒漠,而建筑就如墓园里的座座墓碑。而更尊重美学设计和传统历史的解放碑就更适宜居住。传统的商业圈拥有更多的公园和绿化的优势。解放碑是一个不容忽视的商业圈,宽阔的街道可容纳更多的私家车和公交车,也更适合行人们往来其间。重庆的城市绿化是有所改善,把高山变平的建房也变得更容易,但缺乏了独特的依山而建的特点。有时,越小即越好。

     

    城市扩张是中国的一个大问题。我宁可在城市中心看到70层的建筑和高密集区,而不愿城市毁田造林,填海造地。重庆修建摩天大楼,但修建规范必须严苛管控开发商对修建超过100米建筑的检查,也可允许建筑的不同高度。千篇一律的30栋相同高度的建筑让人思想麻木。建筑规范和设计标准都应允许多样化建筑,那么人们所看天际将更立体,生态环境也更丰富。

     

    将一个1000万人口的城市扩容到2000万,并不是解决城市发展的好方法。小的城市应着眼于人口增加的潜在问题。有人建议回农村过俭朴生活,但农村环境必须得到改善。将贫困环境的改变确实能解决超大城市的人口问题。美国的很多小镇完善了基础设施建设,零售店的增加,餐厅的整修,高科技的普及、服务品质的改善和就业率的提高,这都让人们拥有了更舒适的生活环境。有时,越大可能会越糟。

     

    3、你如何看待庞博在中国作为一名建筑师的成长及未来可能性?

     

    作为一个年轻建筑师,他在一个好的时间一个好的地方,将他的事业做的很好。像这样有英国留学背景的人才,拥有独到的见解并有专业知识和经验的他将给中国建筑注入新鲜的血液。曾到亚洲游历的美国著名建筑师赖特,创造出了芝加哥的草原建筑学派。没有这些丰富的经历,建筑学上将不会出现这样伟大的学派。所以,旅行和留学都能增长见识,这也是我为什么一直鼓励像庞博一样的留学生回到中国,让中国变得更美好。

     

    如今,新型的设计工具让我们的设计在实施前就能更完美的表现,但手绘对于建筑师来说还是很重要的。如果你能将设计概念手绘出来,在你用电脑给出的图形前,你能更直接的丰富你的设计。庞博充满感情的绘图,所呈现的作品是更容易打动人。学习同行的作品也很重要,庞博对流行的建筑案例里运用的新材质、高科技和更好的设计细节都有很浓的学习兴趣。当今,我们更关注带有智能科技的建筑,庞博恰恰能巧妙的运用这些海量的科技信息。

     

    庞博和我一样,都关注生态环境是否宜居,长期在城市生活让我们渴望一片安宁的栖息地。建筑师应考虑如何打造一个更宜居和放松的住所,而不是下雨天,人们走在容易滑倒的大理石广场上。我们希望打造的绿树成荫的建筑,人们往来散步,随处可坐,在馥郁的花香中品味早茶、咖啡和啤酒的闲逸。开个水上的士或是乘着渡轮去工作远比你的私家车在拥挤的车道里挪步来的妙。重庆应该利用起天独厚的水上交通。这些都会让像庞博一样的成功人士会选择在重庆生活。年轻的设计师是重庆建筑的新希望。

     

    聚集优秀的人才和庞博一起奋斗也是很必要的。短期时间完成大量工作,公司需要寻觅、培养设计师人才。庞博今后的发展除了依靠他的同事,还依赖于开发商希望开发优秀建筑的意愿,所以,商业的复杂性是很不易被理解的。未来,年轻的设计师活力和奋斗精神,经验丰富的建筑师可以将建筑达到更高的水平。一个舒适的、可持续的建筑有助于像重庆这样的城市发展。

     

    慢下来的发展脚步有助于做出更多人文的中国建筑。我认为政府、开发商和建筑师可以共同探讨有利于全社会发展的建筑。中国对优良质量的建筑的意识在觉醒,但还需更多的时间去完美。我希望庞博一直在重庆工作而不是去国外舒适、干净的城市。如果庞博和他的同行在未来的10年做出精良的建筑,那么重庆将会变成更完美的宜居之城。

     

     

     

     

     

     

    1.As a professional architect. What are the concepts that you care most during your practice.

     

    "It is most important to be site specific.  You need to understand the natural environment, what is built around you and the culture of the place to have a successful project.  So research is the key to successful development.

     

    I call it the R&D factor, the more you have time to study and plan, the better the developers project will be, and hopefully the more successful the financial rewards for everyone.  Developers who short-change the schedule, or the fee to do a good concept, only hurt the project. 

    In China, there is a saying about "China Speed", and in architecture, sometimes speeding to a solution is as dangerous as speeding in your car, the results can be accidental. The new leadership in China is setting the tone for slower, more sustainable development, and it will help developers to be more thoughtful, and give architects a fighting chance to design lasting projects. Extending the life of buildings is a key need for China, and the first step is careful design and detailing.

     

    Developers who short-change the schedule, or the fee to do a good concept, only hurt the project. 

    In my work, I try to design with nature.  I want to exploit the natural beauty already there, restore what has been lost, and design enduring architecture, which can stand the test of time.  China has a long history, but unfortunately much of the historical buildings have been lost, so what is being built today, may dominate the landscape of the coming centuries.  It is incumbent upon us as architects to design for the future, in part by respecting the past.

     

    Original design should be generated from concepts directly tied to the site investigation. Too many Architects use magazines to get ideas about projects. Copying built projects may be a short cut to a quick solution, and somehow may work with a site, but it is likely not the best way to approach design. To be inspired by past projects is one thing, to copy projects is another, and I tend to see a lot of "Xerox" architecture in Chongqing and other places in China. So in my work, I always start with site planning, visiting the site, reading up about the people, and getting a sense for the climate and the desires of people in that area. In the South, people like large balconies, places to eat and drink outdoors, earth-tone buildings, shade from the sun.....In the North people like direct sunshine, insulated environments, and bright buildings. And there are many specific qualities in every place you go, if you are a Mountain City, a River City or on an island in the tropics.  I have been fortunate to design projects from Harbin to Hainan, and so all extreme environments and everything in between.

     

    2.What's your view on current architectural situation in China? such as large scale new projects, demolition, city planning, city and urban(country side), etc.

    Development is happening too fast.  Thoughtful architecture should take place over decades and centuries not months and years.  China is playing a catch-up game as your post WW2 era did not keep pace with the rest of the world, and so you have about half a century of catching up to do.  The fallout from this is that your natural environment has taken a heavy toll.  The rivers are dangerously polluted, the air in many places is unhealthy, the dust from construction coats every leaf, car and sidewalk, acid rain eats away at the facades of buildings....if mother nature had emotion, she would be crying in pain in China.

     

     

    City planners should cap the amount of demolition that can happen at one time, and enforce dust control measures.  When I see a man with a small garden hose, watering down the demolition of a 10 story building, I laugh out loud (LOL).  You need to visit the West, and see how construction dust mitigation is done.  I live next door to a major bridge construction, and often the crews work all night to the detriment of people trying to sleep in the 6 block area.  The noise, bright lights, explosions, smell of welding and other caustic substances permeates the neighborhood, and it is unrelenting everyday, at every hour.  There needs to be consideration of humanity in development, it is currently ignored.  The sidewalks are shut down and people forced to walk in the street with cars and buses, simply unacceptable, but tolerated in China.

     

     

    The scale of projects is increasing.  This is a bad trend.  Instead of concentrating on one, two or three buildings, most new residential developments may have twenty or thirty towers and hundreds of apartment buildings.  So huge patches of land have matching buildings. In downtown Chongqing, there is a traditional city grid, with individual buildings.  Most of the new buildings are high rise, but the quality is good, and they are individually designed.  In the Jiangbei District, most projects are gated communities on super sized blocks of land, the repetition and monotony of the place makes it a visual desert, and some of the projects resembling tombstones in cemeteries.  It turns out that the old downtown Jeifangbei area in the Yuzhong district has advantages, easy to walk around, better aesthetics, and better orientation. The old downtown could benefit from more parks and vegetation.   Jaingbei is difficult to navigate, the streets are to wide to cross for pedestrians and so everyone has a car or takes the bus there.  The landscaping is improved, but often times the land is flattened to make building easier, removing the character of this mountain city built on hills.  Sometimes, smaller is better.

     

    Urban sprawl is a major problem in China.  I would rather see 70 story buildings and higher density in the core of a city, than to see more and more green land, used for agriculture chewed up by the sea of 100 meter tall, 30 story buildings.  High rise buildings can be exploited in places like Chongqing, which are now seeing a new crop of supertall, skyscrapers.  The building code, which penalizes developers for exceeding 100 meters should be examined, to allow for more variety in building height.  The monotony of 30 towers of the same height in one development times 300 developments is mind numbing.  Building codes and Design standards should allow for developments to build a project with more variety, so that the skyline is improved and compliments the natural environment.

     

     Turning a city of 10 million into a city of 20 million may also not be the right solution for the future.  Smaller cities should be looked at for potential of spreading out the population.   Some people advocate returning to rural environments and living a more simple life, but improving the rural landscape can be a solution.  Upgrading impoverished areas is a balance to just simply relocating everyone to a mega city.  In the US, many small towns are now upgrading infrastructure, retail offerings, better restaurants, and allow people to do work in a more comfortable environment.  Especially high tech, service, or jobs that can be done from home or on the computer can benefit from this concept of upgrading in rural locations.  Sometimes too big, is worse.

     

    3.What do you think about Pong Bo growth and potential in the future as an architect in China

     As a young Architect in the prime of his career, he is in the right place at the right time.  China needs people with talent, and his educational background in the UK gives him a unique perspective as a returning Chinese professional.  To be creative in the field of Architecture, it is helpful to have a broad perspective, and to have experienced many different environments. The famous American Architect, Frank Lloyd Wright was influenced by his travels to Asia, when developing his Prairie School Architecture at the turn of the century in Chicago.  Without this knowledge, an entire category of building style, may have never happened.  This is what traveling and broad experience can do, and that is why I am encouraged when people like Pong Bo return to